By Dr. Khaled Haidari DDS
2. Botanical description
3. Ayurvedic description
5. Herbal Combinations
6. Contraindications and interactions with drugs and minerals
8. End notes
Coriander is an amazing herb that is used for culinary and medicinal purposes. From the oldest times it is known in the Mediterranean region, Africa and the Middle East, central Asia, India and China.1 The old Greeks, Egyptians and Romans were familiar with it. Pliny (Plinius), the famous Roman historian, tells us that “the best coriander came from Egypt’”.2 It is also very popular in Latin America, and it is getting more appreciated in the West. It appears under many names because of its use in many places and times. From the old Sanskrit name kustambari, many modern versions are derived such as the Indonesian kutumbar and the Tamil kotamali. There is another reference from the Persian geshniz being the basis for the central Asian names. In Arabic it is known as kzbara. Most of the European names originate from the Latin coriandrum or the Greek corianon. In English coriander leaves are often referred to as cilantro and the fruits as coriander. The fruits are also known as seeds. Coriander is also found under the names Indian parsley or Chinese parsley because of the close resemblance to its cousin parsley.1
In India it is known as dhanya or dhanyaka, which means “the rich one”.3 It deserves its name because of its many
culinary and medicinal uses.
For culinary purposes, some regions prefer the fruit and others, the leaf. Most of the people like the taste of the fruit and would describe it as warm, nutty and spicy. Some even find an orange-like quality. The leaves are appreciated by almost everyone in Asia and Latin America, and they are described as fresh, green, tangy and even citrusy. Central and Northern Europeans are on average not very fond of the taste and would describe it as soapy, like burnt rubber, or even like crushed bed bugs. Coriander is very good in bringing together the aromas of different spices. That is the reason why it is found in spice mixes even in regions where it is not used separately.1 It is less known that a very deep knowledge was used in designing the curry and spice blends in which coriander is an important component. The intention was to balance and heal.4 Using food as medicine is an important idea of Ayurveda and other systems that developed from it. Another use is in preparing medicines for an amazing variety of health problems with studies confirming the old knowledge and opening new possibilities. The treasure of the “rich one” is immense, and it is very exciting to explore it.
2. Botanical description
The botanical name is Coriandrum sativum. It is classified in the family Apiaeceae, formerly known as Umbeliferaeae.5 This family is also known as the carrot family and has many important members, such as anise, asafetida, caraway, celery, dill, fennel, and parsley.60
-Parts used – Fruit and fresh leaves.
-Description: Coriander is an annual with erect stems, 1-3 feet high, slender and branched. The lowest leaves are stalked and pinnate, the leaflets roundish or oval, slightly lobed. The segments of the uppermost leaves are linear and more divided. The flowers are in shortly-stalked umbels, five to ten rays, pale mauve, almost white, delicately pretty. The seed clusters are very symmetrical, and the seeds fall as soon as they are ripe. They are quite round like tiny balls. They lose their disagreeable scent on drying and become fragrant. The plant is bright green, shining, glabrous and intensely fetid. Gerard describes it as follows:
“The common kind of Coriander is a very striking herb. It has a round stalk full of branches, two feet long. The leaves are almost like the leaves of the parsley, but later on become jagged, almost like the leaves of Fumitorie, but a great deal smaller and more tender. The flowers are white and grow in round tassels like Dill.”
Cultivation: “Coriander likes a warm, dry, light soil, though it also does well in a somewhat heavy soil… It is sown in mild, dry weather in April, or in the wormer month of March.”
“As the seeds ripen, about August, the disagreeable odor gives place to a pleasant aroma and the plant is then cut down with sickles and when dry the fruit is threshed out.”
The parts used are: the fruit and sometimes the fresh leaves for salads and soups. The fruit (so-called seeds) are of globular form, beaked, finely ribbed, yellowish brown, 1/5 inch in diameter, with five longitudinal ridges, separable into two halves (the mericarps), each of which is concave internally and shows the broad, longitudinal oil cells (vittae). The seeds have an aromatic taste and when crushed, a characteristic odor.2
This plant is a native of the Mediterranean region and is intensively grown in India. It is cultivated in all the states and is an important subsidiary crop in the black cotton soils of the Deccan and south India and is also important in North India.6 “The coriander grown in Russia and central Europe (var. microparcum) has smaller fruits less, than 3 mm, and contains more essential oil than the oriental variety ( var.vulgare), which is greater than 3 mm and is cultivated for fruits and leaves.” 1
Constituents- Coriander fruit contains about 1 percent of volatile oil, which is the active ingredient. It is pale yellow or colorless, and has the odor of Coriander and a mild aromatic taste.2 Terpene alcohols are the main component and up to 80 % goes to linalool. 7 Its essential oil consists of linalool called coriandrol (60-70 %), geraniol and borneol .8 The volatile oil also has anethole, camphor and limonen. Coriander essential oil has flavonoids: rutin, quercetin, apigenin, coumarins: psoralen, angelcin, umbeliferone, phenolic acids and phtalides (Williamson 2003) 3. The fruit yields about 5 percent of ash and also contains malic acid, tannin and some fatty mater.”2 Some more components are Beta-sitosteral, D-mannital, flavonoid, glycosides, L-pinene, beta-phellandrene, 1,8-cineole,beta-caryophyllene, aflatocsins B1 and B2.6
3. Ayurvedic description
According to Drayaguna Vijnana, the Gana or classification of coriander according to Ayrveda is Shitprashmana (Refrigerant) and Trishnanigrheneya (Thirst depressant). Synonyms are Dhania (Hindi), Dhanya, Dhanyaka, Kustumburu, Vitnnaka (Sanskrit), Coriander (English). Habitat: it is found in India. Rasa (taste): madhura (sweet), katu (pungent), tikta (bitter) and kshaya (astringent). Guna (physical property) is laghu (light) and snigadha. Virya (potency) is ushana (hot). Vipaka (post digestion effect) is madhura (sweet). Pacifying Vata, Pitta and Kapha dosha. Karma (action) is trishnanigrhena (thirst depressant) It is used in fevers, loss of appetite and indegestion. Parts used are fruits and oil. Dose
1-3 g. 9
Formulations based on Dnayaka are Dhanyapanchaka kwatha and Dhanyakadi hima (Coriander water). (drayaguna vijnana). Dhanyapanchaka Kwatha churna, Satamolyadi Lauha, Ernada Paka, Dhanyadi Lima, Bhaskar Lavana Curna. 10
In the Indian Materia Medica we will find that “Dhanyaka is astringent, bitter and sweet in taste, cardiac tonic, digestive stimulant and carminative. It cures casa (coughing), trt (morbid thirst) and chardi (vomiting). It is useful for the eyes. Green kustumbari (dhanyaka), when used in different ways, imparts good taste, fragrance and cardiac tonic property to various excellent types of vegetables. The dried kustumbari is sweet in vipaka and unctuous. It cures trt (morbid thirst), daha (burning) and aggravated doshas. It is slightly pungent and bitter. It cleanses the channels of
It belongs to the group of herbs known as Guducuyadi gana which according to Arogya cintamani also consists of guduci, nimba, padmaka and rakta candana. The Dravaguna Vijnana gives information from Susruta according to whom drugs belonging to this group cure trsna (morbid thirst), daha (burning syndrome), aruci (anorexia), chardi (vomiting) and jvara (fever). They also stimulate the power of digestion.12
It is also an alterative, diaphoretic, diuretic and carminative according to “The Yoga of Herbs” by Dr. Frawley and Dr. Lad.13
In Dr. Tierra’s “Planetary Herbology” the seeds of Coriander have a neutral energy, and the leaves are cooling.
Benefitted organs are the bladder and stomach. It is carminative, aromatic and diuretic.8
According to Sebastian Pole, the virya (energy) is cooling (leaves) and warming (seed). Its Ayurvedic actions are dipana (appetite stimulant), amapacana (toxin digester), sulaprasamana (alleviates intestinal spasms), dahaghna (alleviates burning in the body), agmimandyanasaka (aleviates sluggish appetite), trshaghna (alleviates thirst), hrdaya (lifts the spirits), krmighna (warm killer), mutrala (diuretic), kusthaghna (alleviates hot skin conditions).3
Dr. Kurt Schaubelt states, “Because of the high linalool content, this oil is tonifying and strengthening. In addition, a series of coumarin compounds together with linalool provide a mild euphoric effect.” 7
“Coriander seeds are a good household remedy for many pitta disorders, particularly those of the digestive tract or urinary system.” 13 They can be used together with burdock seeds, which have similar indications.14
“This popular Indian curry ingredient is also an invaluable medicine; it soothes an irritated digestive system and cools any burning sensations in the body. Its sweet aroma subtly lifts the spirits. Dhanyaka is a proper noun also meaning rich.” It is used in dosages 1-30 g/day or 3-15 ml/day of a 1: 3@45 % tincture. It is often used with sugar to increase the anti-pitta effect. 3
Digestion. Coriander seed is an excellent remedy for promoting Pitta digestion as it enkindles agni but does not aggravate acidity. It is safe to use when there is an inflammation in the digestive system and agni needs strengthening. It is prescribed in IBS (irritative bowel syndrome) and colic. Both the leaf and the seed are used to clear flatulence, gripping and bloating.3 For gas and indigestion a tea can be prepared: an infusion with the seeds.15
It is an effective digestive agent for Pitta conditions in which most spices are contraindicated or used with caution. Often used together with fennel and cumin which are related plants with similar properties for digestive disorders, mainly owing to high Pitta, and are also used together in various formulations to promote the assimilation of the other herbs.13
Coriander can be used roasted alone or with fennel and cumin, one teaspoon after meals for cramping and flatulence.16
For pitta type bloating where symptoms of high pitta such as hyperacidity, diarrhea, heartburn and irritability appear along with gas, cool carminatives — among which is coriander — should be combined with bitters (gentian, barberry, goldenseal, katuka). Coriander, fennel and cumin should be taken in equal parts, ¼ teaspoon before meals.17
It is also useful for vata and kapha because of its digestion enhancing quality, although in small amounts. It is useful for flatulence and indigestion.6
“ The curry powder characteristic of the Indian cooking was originally a therapeutic blend of spices. It included turmeric, cumin seed, coriander, ginger, asafetida and chili pepper along with garlic and onions sautéed in ghee (clarified butter).4 The basis of Indian curry is three important spices: cumin seed which is heating, carminative and with a strong spicy flavor; coriander seed which is cooler and has a milder spicy flavor and turmeric root, pleasantly bitter and only slightly spicy tasting, imparts a golden color to the food. It has liver detoxifying, blood moving and digestive properties. These three spices used together are balanced within themselves and are most important in promoting optimal digestion and assimilation of complex carbohydrates.”18
Urinary tract.For urinary tract infections, burning urethra and cystitis. It is a cooling diuretic.19 It combines well with fennel.16
It is specific for strengthening of the urinary tract. The seeds and the leaves can both be used as an infusion for infections of the urinary tract.8
A cold infusion of the seeds is used for draining heat out of the urinary system. Useful in cystitis, dysuria and cloudy urine (bhavaprakasa). 3 Warm infusion is also advised for burning on urination. This tea makes the urine more alkaline.15 One formula for urinary tract infections with burning urination is: coriander, pipsissewa, plantain, Marshmallow, lemon grass and gotu kola in equal parts, 1-2 teaspoons of cut and sifted herbs in 1 cup of hot water every few hours.20
Kidney flash procedure done after one day of fasting consists of drinking one or two quarts of water with a small amount of mild diuretic herbs, like coriander, parsley and lemon grass the following morning.21
Edema. Cilantro is used as a mild diuretic which is good in order not to over stimulate the kidneys.22 ”Excess moisture of the body is dried out by coriander.” 23 Used as a decoction, it is useful for treating the swelling during pregnancy starting from the fifth month.24
High blood pressure. Here, its property of being a good diuretic is used.53
Allergies, hay fever, skin rushes, urticaria. The fresh juice of the herb is effective internally, but it can also be used externally for itch and inflammation. One teaspoon three times a day.13 Skin rash is treated with an application of the pulp of cilantro leaf directly or by taking coriander tea, 1 tsp. to 1 cup of water.26 “Coriander may be used internally for allergic rhinitis of pitta origin (Frawley & Lad 1994).” 3 When used internally it helps purify the blood and externally relieves the burning sensation. It is also applied for dermatitis. 15
Coriander is used to increase digestive fire and regulate digestive function in pitta patients with allergies. 25
Food poisoning/radiation: In 1 cup of miso soup add 1 tsp. of ghee and ½ tsp each of coriander and cumin powder.27 A Romanian study shows coriander being an excellent antibacterial and antifungal, effective against staphylococcus, streptococcus, E. coli, salmonella and Candida albicans. The study suggests industrial use for coriander as a food preserver.54
Vomiting 11’12 Warm infusion of the seeds is used and also helps with nausea.15
Temporal headache: that indicates excess pitta in the stomach. That can be relieved by drinking a tea of cumin and coriander seeds, ½ tsp each in one cup of hot water. This goes with an application of sandalwood oil or paste to the temples.28
Poison bites and stings: drink cilantro juice.26
Parasites. The powder of the seed is used for worms in children. 3 A decoction of the seeds is used effectively.29
Eye infections. Eyes are rinsed with a cooled decoction of the seeds.24
Diabetes. Coriander is beneficial in the hot, pitta type diabetes (pittaja prameha).3 This herb has a hypoglycemic effect; it lowers the glucose level in the blood.43
Hot flashes 3
Respiratory system. It is used for sore throat 13. It is useful for coughs 11 when combined with licorice and pippali 3. Another way is ground coriander seeds mixed with honey in the 1:2 ratio. 24
For pitta-type asthma coriander is applied in the anti-pitta diet. 31
Coriander helps clean mucus from the lungs with its antispasmodic and expectorant properties. (Paranpje 2001) 3
Detoxifying herb. Coriander helps to clean the body from the cell up 6. The leaf is used to facilitate the safe excretion of heavy metals and other environmental toxins such as lead, arsenic and mercury. It must be used in drop-by-drop doses accompanied by chlorella, an intestinal heavy metal toxin agent.3
Fever. Resolves fevers. 23 The seeds are a mild diaphoretic and they can help alleviate a fever by allowing the displaced agni, pitta and ama to be released through the skin and urine. 3 It is also a cooling diuretic. 19’12
Small pox. It was used for treating of this horrible and now extant disease.33
Colds. Coriander is “particularly useful when a person has a cold.” 23 The essential oil applied externally helps alleviate the body aches.29
Morbid thirst. 11’12 A cold infusion is used with some honey.24
Liver, hepatitis. Coriander is a mild spice that helps promote liver energy and improve the appetite when the liver is sluggish or congested. It is used as a spice for cooking or tea, before or after meals.34 During the treatment of hepatitis, after a mono diet of mung beans for 1-2 weeks, basmati rice can be added to make kicharee, along with coriander, turmeric and other liver cleansing spices. Mainly bitter herbs are indicated with bile clearing, blood cleansing and mild purgative action. Here aloe vera is used with small amounts of turmeric and coriander, 1-2 teaspoons before meals.35
For milder cases of gall stones, corn silk tea, 1 ounce per pint of water with 1 teaspoon of coriander, taken daily is effective. Most herbs for urinary stones help clear gall stones as well when combined with coriander to conduct the action to the liver area. One formula is coriander, turmeric, barberry, gravel root and corn silk in equal parts. 36
It has a hepato-protective effect, reducing the liver weight and clearing the fat and necrosis. 55
Epistaxis or nose bleeds. Coriander tea is used in this case. 37 Also, a paste of green coriander leaves can be applied on the forehead, and the patient should inhale the aroma of fresh coriander leaves.38
Cleansing of the channels of circulation. 11 ”It opens the subtlest networks of the veins.” 23
Weakened immunity. Therapy for weakened immunity (according to Franchomme) starts with two days of intense treatment with essential oils containing phenol (oregano or thyme) and then starts with steadily decreasing them and introducing oils that contain terpene alcohol (coriander, eucalyptus, tea tree, thyme etc.) that are to be applied alternately.39
AIDS. Equal parts coriander, gotu kola, sarsaparilla, ashwaghandha, shatavari, gokshura and sandalwood.30
Increasing of the milk flow.23
Increasing of the menstrual flow.23
Excessive menstrual bleeding Take coriander with rice water and fresh cilantro leaves.24
Boldness, scalp problems and prevention of grey hair. The oil is used 23 or fresh juice made of the leaves.24
Insect repellant. The smoke of the burning seed is an effective insect repellant.23
Arthritis. Coriander is traditionally used for arthritis, and a study shows that its swelling-decreasing action is based on the anti-inflammatory property.56 Linalool has an anti-inflammatory action.40 The essential oil is applied by massaging the painful joint.29 If no oil is available, a decoction of crushed seeds is used to soak a cloth and place it on the joint. The cloth has to be warm. (anecdotal)
Halitosis (bad breath). Chewing of a few seeds as needed takes care of the problem.24
Antifungal. A study on the effect of coriander essential oil on Candida albicans isolated from the oral bio film of patients with periodontal disease shows that it has a strong antifungal activity which gives it a good potential to be used in a new antifungal preparation. 57 ’54
Anti-anxiety. Its extract applied in certain doses on mice has an anti-anxiety effect comparable to diazepam, according to a study. 58 It is believed the effect is due to the linalool.40
Insomnia. A paste made of the green leaves is placed on the forehead or is taken orally as a juice of the leaves or by chewing the leaves.24 Linolool is proven to induce sleep.40 For this purpose in the Unani Tibb system the seeds are used as an infusion.41
Stress. It is relaxing because of the linalool component. 40
Promotes good memory. 29
Cholesterol and triglyceride lowering. It is proven by a study that coriander seeds significantly reduce the level of cholesterol and triglycerides after a diet high in fats. HDL is increased. It is believed that this is due to the enhanced hepatic bile acid synthesis and increased degradation of cholesterol to fecal bile acids and neutral sterols. 59
Diarrhea. Chewing coriander seeds is recommended. 42
6. Herbal Combinations
– With fennel, cumin and cardamom for digestive upsets 3 and with fennel for urinary problems. 19
– Gokshura, manjishta and punarnava for urinary problems, especially stones and burning. 3
– Sariva and pit shirisha for skin allergies.
– With vasa for respiratory allergies.3
– Licorice and pippali for cough 3
– Fresh ginger for fever. 3
– Coriander seeds work well together with burdock seeds, which have similar indications. 14
– Together with betel leaves, it is used to flavor food, as a purgative and to prevent gripping (with meals) 6
7. Contraindications and interactions with drugs and minerals
According to Pole, “There are no known contraindications and drug-herb interactions for Coriander. The herb is very safe.” 3. Dr. Schnaubelt also states that there are no known contraindications. 7 So coriander is considered to be a very safe herb, but there is some advice on avoiding the coriander essential oil in the first three months of pregnancy due to its mildly stimulating effect. 40
Many members of the Apiaecae family, formerly known as Umbelliferae (or the carrot family), are more prone than other species to causing allergic reactions. Among them is contact dermatitis due to handling or local application. This can sensitize to other members of the family. Aside from coriander, members of this family are anise seed (Pimpinella anisum), asafetida (Ferula spp.), caraway (Carum carvi), celery seeds, root or stalks (Apium graveolens), dill
(Anethum graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), parsley leaves (Petroselinum sativum) and Queen Anne’s lace (Daucus carota).44
In some cases there is interaction between vitamin supplements taken in high doses and drugs or minerals. That interaction can work in two ways. Drugs and minerals can lower the vitamin absorption and reduce its serum levels, or increase its metabolism and excretion. In those cases it is good using plants that contain the vitamin that is deficient.45 Another way of interaction is when the vitamin or mineral can raise the drug or mineral serum levels or reduce their effect.
Many people take mineral supplements, and interactions with drugs are documented. Consumption of herb sources that contain the mineral is not going to cause the same effect, but it has the potential of exacerbating it (when a supplement is used). Herbs are an adequate source of minerals when high potency mineral supplements cannot be used due to drug interactions. Mineral elements have a toxic potential when used in excessive quantities. This is a point that goes in favor of using natural sources of mineral ingredients instead of high concentrations of mineral inorganic
Cilantro leaves are rich in calcium. 47 Calcium as carbonate has interactions with some drugs and minerals.
Documented in human studies, cilantro lowers the serum level or effects of levothyroxine, and in the case of tetracycline leads to insufficiency. Drugs that lower the calcium serum level leading to insufficiency are corticosteroids, gentamicin, phenobarbital, phenolphthalein, phenytoin, tetracycline and viomycin. 48
The leaves of this beautiful herb are also rich in iron. 49 It is documented in human studies that iron lowers the
serum level or effects of doxycycline, levodopa, methacycline, methyldopa, minocyclyne, oxytetracycline and thyroxine, causing an insufficient effect. It lowers trientine without causing insufficiency. Drugs that lower the serum iron levels leading to insufficiency are caffeine, calcium carbonate, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, trientine and vitamine E. 50
Cilantro leaves are rich with magnesium. Digoxin, gentamicin and viomycin lower the magnesium, causing insufficiency, as proven by studies in humans. 51
It is also a source of potassium. Acetazolamide, carbenicillin, carbenoxolone, cephalothin, clindamycin, gentamicin and penicillin lower its serum levels or efficiency, causing insufficiency. Spironolactone causes an increase to toxic levels.52
This herb has a hypoglycemic effect. It lowers the glucose level in the blood. Insulin-dependent diabetics (type I) who take coriander have to monitor their blood glucose level not only because of the need to prevent high glucose level, but also to be able to avoid hypoglycemic episodes. It is possible to have insulin shock as a result of the combined actions of the insulin and the hypoglycemic herb.43
Coriander is a herb well known since ancient times in vast parts of the world from the Mediterranean basin to India and China. Both its dried fruits and the fresh leaves with the stem known as coriander and cilantro, respectively, are used for culinary and medicinal purposes. Even the culinary applications have a medicinal background. They were originally designed to balance the food and facilitate digestion. As part of the food, the herb is also useful for controlling bad breath and is a source of vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, calcium and iron. Different cultures have different preferences between the seeds and the leaf, and the number of applications is huge.
The purely medicinal use is also very developed with a big variety of problems that are treated and many different formulas and ways of preparations. Corainder is considered to be very safe. The most widely-known use is for digestive problems where it improves the digestion, stokes the agni (digestive fire) without aggravating pitta and increasing acidity. It is very useful for flatulence, gripping and bloating.
Another well known use of coriander is for urinary tract problems that are connected with burning urination and infections. It is a mild diuretic, great for the task because it will not overwhelm the kidneys with excessive activity. It is also strengthening to the urinary system. Kidney stones are prevented with a kidney flush with coriander. Its diuretic property will be useful in treating edema and high blood pressure.
Coriander has a detoxifying action for various toxins, which, interestingly, is used for poisoning with metals. It is also cleansing to the liver and cleans the fat and necrosis in it. Coriander is effective in simple cases of gall stones. Most herbs that act on urinary tract stones will have an effect on gall stones when coriander is used as a carrier to conduct their action to the liver.
Studies are proving its great ability in treating bacterial and fungal infections and parasites. The traditional use is in eye infections, colds, food preserving and parasites in children.
Coriander has hypoglycemic action (reducing blood glucose), which makes it very useful in diabetes. It is proven to lower the “bad” cholesterol and triglycerides. In the long list, coriander also helps with excessive or insufficient menstruation, allergies, skin problems, burns, baldness, measles, nose bleed, increasing blood flow, treating thirst and working as an insect repellant.
When we consider coriander’s proven uses, the studies opening new avenues for applications, as well as its safety, the inevitable conclusion is that this formidable herb, coriander, rightfully deserves its name dhanyaka, which means “rich” or “wealthy”. It can also be said that we are immensely enriched by it.
9. End Notes
1. Gernot Katzer’s Spice Pages, Gernot Katzer, Coriander seeds and cilantro herb. http://www.uni- graz.at/~katzer/engl/Cori_sat.html#disc
2. Botanical.com, M. Grieve, Coriander. http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/corian99.html
3. Sebastian Pole,: Ayurvedic Medicine, Principles of Traditional Practice (Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Ltd. 2006) 165
4. Michael Tierra, C.A., N.D.,O.M.D., Planetary Herbology, an Integration of Western Herbs Into The Traditional Chinese and Ayurvedic Systems (Twin Lakes, Wi: Lotus Press, 1988) 100
5. Francis Brinker, N.D.; Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions (Sandy, Or: Eclectic Medical Publications, 2001) 209,210
6. Charu Mahawar;Alka Agarwal,“Ayurveda Wonder Foods-Spices”,Light on Ayurveda Journal,Vol. VIII,Issue 1,(Fall 2009):39
7. Kurt Schaubelt, Ph.D.; Advanced Aromatherapy, The Science of Essential Oil Therapy (Rochester, Ve: Healing Arts Press, 1998) 66
8. Michael Tierra, C.A., N.D., O.M.D.; Planetary Herbology, an Integration of Western Herbs Into The Traditional Chinese and Ayurvedic systems (Twin Lakes, Wi: Lotus Press, 1988) 219
9. Dr. Amritpal Singh, Drayaguna Vijnana ( Delhi:Chaukhambha Orientalia, 2005) 115
10. Charu Mahawar;Alka Agarwal,“Ayurveda Wonder Foods-Spices”, Light on Ayurveda Journal, Vol. VIII, Issue 1,(Fall 2009)40
11. Vaidya Bhagwan Dash & Vaidya Lalitesh Kashyap, Materia Medica of Ayurveda Based on Ayurveda Saukham of Todarananda (New Delhi, Naurang Rai, Concept publishing company, 1979) 41,42
12. Vaidya Bhagwan Dash & Vaidya Lalitesh Kashyap, Materia Medica of Ayurveda Based on Ayurveda Saukham of Todarananda (New Delhi, Naurang Rai, Concept publishing company, 1979) 420
13. Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs, an Ayurvedic Guide to Herbal Medicine (Twin Lakes, Wi: Lotus press, 1986), 114
14. Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs, an Ayurvedic Guide to Herbal Medicine (Twin Lakes, Wi: Lotus press, 1986) 106
15. Dr. Vasant Lad, Ayurveda The Science of Self Healing (Twin Lakes, Wi: Lotus press, 1984) 134
16. Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs, an Ayurvedic Guide to Herbal Medicine (Twin Lakes, Wi: Lotus press, 1986), 117
17. Dr. David Frawley, Ayurvedic Healing, a Comprehensive Guide (Twin Lakes, Wi: Lotus press, 2000) 183,184
18. Michael Tierra, C.A., N.D., O.M.D., Planetary Herbology, an Integration of Western Herbs Into The Traditional Chinese and Ayurvedic Systems (Twin Lakes, Wi: Lotus Press, 1988)422
19. Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs, an Ayurvedic Guide to Herbal Medicine (Twin Lakes, Wi: Lotus press, 1986) 61
20. Dr. David Frawley, Ayurvedic Healing, a Comprehensive Guide (Twin Lakes, Wi: Lotus press, 2000) 233
21. Dr. David Frawley, Ayurvedic Healing, a Comprehensive Guide (Twin Lakes, Wi: Lotus press, 2000) 229
22. Dr. David Frawley, Ayurvedic Healing, a Comprehensive Guide (Twin Lakes, Wi: Lotus press, 2000) 232
23. Shaykh Hakim Moinuddin Chishti, The Book of Sufi Healing (Rochester, Ve: Inner Traditions International, 1991) 57
24. Online-health-care.com, Health Care Staff, Coriander (Dhaniya) uses and benefits. http://www.online-health-care.com/herbal-medicines/coriander.htm
25. Dr. David Frawley; Ayurvedic Healing, a Comprehensive Guide (Twin Lakes, Wi: Lotus press, 2000) 158
26. Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs, an Ayurvedic Guide to Herbal Medicine (Twin Lakes, Wi: Lotus press, 1986), 227
27. Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs, an Ayurvedic Guide to Herbal Medicine (Twin Lakes, Wi: Lotus press, 1986) 225
28. Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs, an Ayurvedic Guide to Herbal Medicine (Twin Lakes, Wi: Lotus press, 1986) 226
29. Naturaltherapypages.com, Natural Therapy Pages Staff, Coriander. http://www.naturaltherapypages.com.au/article/coriander
30. Dr. David Frawley; Ayurvedic Healing, a Comprehensive Guide(Twin Lakes, Wi: Lotus press, 2000) 266
31. Dr. David Frawley; Ayurvedic Healing, a Comprehensive Guide (Twin Lakes, Wi: Lotus press, 2000) 206
32. Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Home Page, Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Home Page Staff, Coriander. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/med-aro/factsheets/CORIANDER.html
33. Organic facts.net, Apurup Mukherjee, Health Benefits of Coriander. http://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/herbs- and-spices/health-benefits-of-coriander.html
34. Dr. David Frawley; Ayurvedic Healing, a Comprehensive Guide (Twin Lakes, Wi: Lotus press, 2000) 153
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These are the abstracts of the studies referred to in the paper.
Indian J Med Res. 2012 Feb;135(2):240-5.
Evaluation of disease modifying activity of Coriandrum sativum in experimental models.
Nair V, Singh S, Gupta YK.
Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
Background & objectives: Coriandrum sativum (CS), has been widely used in traditional systems of medicine for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, the mechanism of action for its antiarthritic effects is not clearly known. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the antiarthritic activity of CS in rats in two experimental models. Methods: The antiarthritic activity of CS seed hydroalcoholic extract (CSHE) was evaluated in adult Wistar rats by using two experimental models, viz. formaldehyde and Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis. The expression of pro- inflammatory cytokines (predominantly contributed by macrophages) was also evaluated. TNF- α level was estimated in serum by ELISA method. TNF-R1, IL-1 β and IL-6 expression in the synovium was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Results: CSHE produced a dose dependent inhibition of joint swelling as compared to control animals in both, formaldehyde and CFA induced arthritis. Although there was a dose dependent increase in serum TNF-α levels in the CSHE treated groups as compared to control, the synovial expression of macrophage derived pro-inflammatory cytokines/cytokine receptor was found to be lower in the CSHE treated groups as compared to control. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the antiarthritic activity of CSHE may be attributed to the modulation of pro- inflammatory cytokines in the synovium. In further studies CSHE could be explored to be developed as a disease modifying agent in the treatment of RA.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:985832. Epub 2011 May 21.
Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oil upon Oral Candida albicans Biofilm Formation.
Furletti VF, Teixeira IP, Obando-Pereda G, Mardegan RC, Sartoratto A, Figueira GM, Duarte RM, Rehder VL, Duarte MC, Höfling JF.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dental School of Piracicaba, University of Campinas-UNICAMP, 13414- 903 Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
The efficacy of extracts and essential oils from Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Santolina chamaecyparissus was evaluated against Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. The most active oil was fractionated and tested against C. albicans biofilm formation. The oils were obtained by water-distillation and the extracts were prepared with macerated dried plant material. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration-MIC was determined by the microdilution method. Chemical characterization of oil constituents was performed using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). C. sativum activity oil upon cell and biofilm morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The best activities against planktonic Candida spp. were observed for the essential oil and the grouped F(8-10) fractions from C. sativum. The crude oil also affected the biofilm formation in C. albicans causing a decrease in the biofilm growth. Chemical analysis of the F(8-10) fractions detected as major active compounds, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane. Standards of these compounds tested grouped provided a stronger activity than the oil suggesting a synergistic action from the major oil constituents. The activity of C. sativum oil demonstrates its potential for a new natural antifungal formulation.
Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol. 2010 Oct-Dec;69(4):224-30.
Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils against bacterial and fungal species involved in food poisoning and/or food decay.
Lixandru BE, Drăcea NO, Dragomirescu CC, Drăg ul es cu EC , Coldea IL, Anton L, Dobre E, Rovinaru C, C odiţă I . http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21462837
Cantacuzino” National Institute of Research-Development for Microbiology and Immunology, Bucharest, România.
The currative properties of aromatic and medicinal plants have been recognized since ancient times and, more recently, the antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils has been used in several applications, including food preservation. The purpose of this study was to create directly comparable, quantitative data on the antimicrobial activity of some plant essential oils prepared in the National Institute of Research-Development for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Bucharest to be used for the further development of food packaging technology, based on their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The essential oils extracted from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and carraway (Carum carvi L.) were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against eleven different bacterial and three fungal strains belonging to species reported to be involved in food poisoning and/or food decay: S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25913, E. coli ATCC 25922, E. coli ATCC 35218, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Cantacuzino Institute Culture Collection (CICC) 10878, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112, Bacillus cereus CIP 5127, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Penicillium spp. CICC 251 and two E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis clinical isolates. The majority of the tested essential oils exibited considerable inhibitory capacity against all the organisms tested, as supported by growth inhibition zone diameters, MICs and MBC’s. Thyme, coriander and basil oils proved the best antibacterial activity, while thyme and spearmint oils better inhibited the fungal species.
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Indian J Pharmacol. 2011 Sep;43(5):574-7.
Anti-anxiety activity of Coriandrum sativum assessed using different experimental anxiety models.
Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur – 302 004, India.
Interest in alternative medicine and plant-derived medications that affect the “mind” is growing. The aim of present study was to explore the anti-anxiety activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum (Linn.) using different animal models (elevated plus maze, open field test, light and dark test and social interaction test) of anxiety in mice. Diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) was used as the standard and dose of hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum fruit (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) was selected as per OECD guidelines. Results suggested that extract of C. sativum at 100 and 200 mg/kg dose produced anti- anxiety effects almost similar to diazepam, and at 50 mg/kg dose did not produce anti-anxiety activity on any of the paradigm used. Further studies are needed to identify the anxiolytic mechanism(s) and the phytoconstituents responsible for the observed central effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum.
J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2011 Jul;3(3):435-41.
Pharmacological screening of Coriandrum sativum Linn. for hepatoprotective activity.
Department of Pharmacology, Radharaman College of Pharmacy, Ratibad, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.
OBJECTIVE: Coriandrum sativum (Linn.), a glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous annual plant, is well known for its use in jaundice. Essential oil, flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated from different parts of C. sativum. The plant has a very effective antioxidant profile showing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, lipoxygenase inhibition, phospholipid peroxidation inhibition, iron chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutation, glutathione reduction and antilipid peroxidation due to its high total phenolic content with the presence of constituents like pyrogallol, caffeic acid, glycitin, etc.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective activity of C. sativum against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), with estimation of serum serum glutamyl oxaloacetic acid transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaine phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, and with liver histopathology.
RESULTS: Ethanolic extract was found to be rich in alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed the presence of iso-quercetin and quercetin. C. sativum signifies hepatoprotection by reducing the liver weight, activities of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP, and direct bilirubin of CCl(4) intoxicated animals. Administration of C. sativum extract at 300 mg/kg dose resulted in disappearance of fatty deposit, ballooning degeneration and necrosis, indicating antihepatotoxic activity.
CONCLUSION The results of this study have led to the conclusion that ethanolic extract of C. sativum possesses hepatoprotective activity which may be due to the antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1997;51(2):167-72.
Hypolipidemic effect of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum): mechanism of action.
Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, India.
The effect of the administration of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) on the metabolism of lipids was studied in rats fed a high fat diet with added cholesterol. The spice had a significant hypolipidemic action. The levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides decreased significantly in the tissues of the animals of the experimental group which received coriander seeds. Significant increases in beta-hydroxy, beta-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase and plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activity were noted in the experimental group. The level of LDL + VLDL cholesterol decreased while that of
HDL cholesterol increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. The increased activity of plasma LCAT, enhanced hepatic bile acid synthesis and the increased degradation of cholesterol to fecal bile acids and neutral sterols appeared to account for its hypocholesterolemic effect.
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]