Guduchi: The Amrit of Ayurveda by Neeshee Pandit

 I. Introduction 

Ayurveda is a 5,000-year-old system of medicine, rooted in the ancient Indian scriptures known as The Vedas. According to the Vedas, the entire universe is a manifestation of five elements: space, air, fire, water, and earth. The human being, a non-separate manifestation born of the universe, is also comprised of these very elements. Thus, living in harmony with the external universe and balancing the flow of the five elements in the human physiology maintains health and well-being. What we take into our body affects this cosmic dynamism more than anything else, and this is where the significance of plant medicines comes to light. Dr. Vasant Lad and Dr. David Frawley write poetically about the role of plants in Ayurvedic medicine: 

“Plants bring us love, the nourishing power of the sun, which is the same energy of all the stars, of all light. These cosmic energies emanated by plants thus nourish, sustain and make grow our own astral body. In this way the existence of plants is a great offering, a sacrifice. They offer us not only their own nutritive value but the very light and love from the stars, from the cosmos whose messengers they are. They bring us the universal light so that we can enter the universal life. They exist for psychological, as well as physical nourishment…The Sanskrit word for the plant osadhi means literally a receptacle or mind, dhi, in which there is burning transformation, osa.”1

Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) is one such plant and among the most highly revered herbs of Ayurvedic medicine. Known universally as “Guduchi” (the one who protects), the herb is also known by different names across the sub-continent of India: “Tippa-teega” (Telugu), “Shindilakodi” (Tamil), “Arutha balli” (Kannada), “Rasakinda” (Sinhala), “Giloy” (Hindi), “Garo” (Gujarati), “Amrit” (Sanskrit), “Guduchi” (Marathi), and “Guluchi” (Oriya).2

Originating in India, guduchi is a tropical climbing herb that belongs to the Mernispermaccae family. It is now found not only in the tropical areas of India but also in Sri Lanka and Burma.2 The guduchi vine grows wild and does not require much cultivation. In the Indian city of Ahmedabad, for example, guduchi grows wild on hedges. Guduchi is often found in the dry forests of India growing on large trees, particularly neem and mango trees. One of the defining characteristics of the plant is its green heart-shaped leaf.3

The sacred origin of guduchi is described in the Indian epic, The Ramayana and the sacred text of the Durga Saptshati. Vaidya Ramakant Mishra recounts the myth of guduchi from The Ramayana saying that guduchi began growing on Earth from the hands of Lord Indra. Lord Rama made a special prayer to Lord Indra asking Indra to resurrect all the monkeys and bears from his army that had died during the war with the rakshasa (demon), Ravana. Upon hearing the wish from Rama, Lord Indra granted Rama the boon and sprinkled nectar from the heavens to resurrect the animals. As the nectarous drops fell upon the bodies of the dead monkeys and bears, they suddenly came back to life. The nectarous drops that fell on the Earth formed the sacred guduchi plant.4

Guduchi is highly valued in Ayurveda for its detoxifying, rejuvenating, immune-boosting, and anti-rheumatic properties. It is now being studied and utilized in modern medicine for cold and flu prevention, immune support, skin disorders, arthritis, liver disorders, gout (and rheumatic disorders), and most recently to mitigate the negative effects of chemotherapy.5 Guduchi is clearly an herb with a myriad of potent medicinal qualities, qualities that were recognized by the ancient rishis in Vedic times, long before modern scientific technology. Through spiritual means, the rishis were able to understand guduchi (and other herbs) in a profound manner and now modern science is able to evaluate and recognize many of the medicinal properties of guduchi.

II. General Classifications

In Ayurvedic medicine, guduchi is considered to be one of three amrit plants. The Sanskrit term “amrit” literally means “nectar” or “ambrosia”. In the context of Ayurvedic medicine, “amrit” is understood to be the nectar of the gods. The three plants which contain this heavenly nectar (or amrit) are guduchi, garlic, and haritaki. Interestingly, the Sanskrit name for guduchi is “amritavalli”, literally meaning “creeper with amrit”–creeper being a reference to its climbing nature. The classification of guduchi as “amrit” alone indicates the elevated status of this herb in Ayurveda.4 

Dr. Vasant Lad and Dr. David Frawley give further comment to the reverence with which one views herbs and why they are considered sacred: 

“The proper usage of a plant or herb, during which its true power is released, implies a communion with it. The plant, when we are one with it, will vitalize our nervous system and invigorate our perception. This means giving value to a plant as something sacred, as a means of communion with all nature. Each plant, then, like a mantra, will help to actualize the potential of cosmic life of which it is a representative.”1

In that spirit, Vaidya Ramakant Mishra’s “Shaka Vansiya” family lineage has emphasized the therapeutic properties of guduchi and the many ways to use it. Mishra considers guduchi to be “the most divine herb in Ayurveda” and refers to it as “divya aushadhi” (divine plant) and as “the best rasayana”. Such a classification should make it clear that guduchi enjoys a status in Ayurvedic medicine that extends far beyond that of a useful or highly medicinal herb, but that of a sacred herb that gives the body and mind the very nectar of life. Indeed, Vaidya Mishra has described guduchi as “jivanti” (or life-giving), as illustrated by the mythological story of the monkeys coming back to life.4

The 16th century Ayurvedic treatise, Bhav Prakash by Bhav Mishra, gives a further analysis of the spiritual nature of guduchi by naming it “chinnodbhava” (able to grow even if cut). Vaidya Mishra elaborates on the significance of this quality, pointing out that it indicates guduchi’s ability to live on air. According to Mishra, guduchi “…is so full of life that is can grow without any soil or water”. Mishra draws a profound comparison to the great yogis who were able to live without food or water, subsisting purely on the pranic energy in the air. Mishra says that guduchi possesses “amrit siddhi”, or capability to live entirely on the pranic energy available in the air without the need for grosser levels of sustenance, and indicates that it is an herb uniquely full with life- energy.4

In terms of its medicinal actions, guduchi is classified as a bitter tonic, febrifuge, alterative, diuretic, aphrodisiac, rejuvenative, and anti-rheumatic.1 In Nadkarni’s Indian Materia Medica, guduchi is described as a stomachic, bitter tonic, alterative, aphrodisiac, hepatic stimulant, antiperiodic, mild diuretic, and demulcent.3 Guduchi brings nourishment to all seven tissues (or dhatus) of the body, making it a powerful nutritive tonic. The ability of this herb to detoxify the body while simultaneously rejuvenating it makes it a deeply effective herbal medicine for all constitutional types.4 

III. Dravya Guna: Rasa, Virya, Vipaka, and Prabhava

“Dravya” means “substance” or “material” and “guna” means “quality”. In Ayurvedic medicine, “dravya guna” is the study of herbal medicine via the specific qualities of each herb. Based on these qualities, Ayurveda classifies herbs according to four categories: 

  • rasa (or “taste”)
  • virya (or “potency”) 
  • vipaka (or “post-digestive effect”)
  • prabhava (or “special action”).6 

The “rasa” of an herb indicates which tastes are predominant and allow one to evaluate the effect of the herb on the three doshas. The “virya” of an herb indicate the energetic quality of the herb–whether it is heating or cooling. “Vipaka” is a classification unique to Ayurveda and describes the ultimate effect of the herb once it has been digested. “Prabhava” is another unique classification that describes the mysterious and often contradictory effects of an herb, such as the ability of a heating herb such as ginger to function as a powerful anti-inflammatory.6 

Guduchi has a rasa that is bitter and astringent. Bitter taste reduces Pitta and Kapha doshas, while increasing Vata dosha. Astringent taste decreases Pitta and Kapha doshas, while increasing Vata dosha. 

Guduchi is considered to have an ushna (or heating) virya, yet it does not aggravate Pitta dosha. Ginger also has ushna virya which typically increases Pitta dosha, making this effect unique to guduchi, an example of prabhava. Vaidya Mishra’s family tradition describes guduchi as the only herb that is able to bind and safely remove acidic and environmental toxins from the body without aggravating Pitta dosha while also healing the damage caused by local toxins.4 

The vipaka (or post-digestive effect) of guduchi is sweet, meaning that in the long-term it will decrease Vata and Pitta doshas while providing a nourishing quality to the body. Altogether, the effect of guduchi is that of reducing all three doshas. 

In terms of guna (or quality), guduchi is described as:

  • laghu (light)
  • deepanam (kindles digestive fire)
  • chakshushyam (good for the eyes)
  • dhatukrit (builds the seven bodily tissues)
  • medhayam (rejuvenating for the mind)
  • bayasthaapankarakam (maintains youthfulness and longevity).3

According to Mishra, guduchi’s light quality coupled with its heating action allows it to penetrate the dhatus while the astringent quality enhances absorption in the dhatus.4 

The Caraka Samhita also describes guduchi as having the qualities of “guru” (or heaviness) and “snigdha” (or untuousness).7 Heavy and unctuous qualities reduce Vata and Pitta doshas while increasing Kapha dosha. Guduchi is considered to be tridoshic because the comprehensive effect of the herb, the sum total of all its parts and qualities, reduces all three doshas, detoxifies the deepest dhatu (shukra), and rejuvenates the entire body. Thus, guduchi is also able to build ojas of good quality and quantity, explaining its actions as an immune-booster. Guduchi is also described as being “pathyam”, meaning that it keeps one on the path of health by agreeing with one’s physiology. As such, it is documented to have good effect for convalescents.4

Guduchi’s most powerful effects come to light in examining its “prabhava” (or special properties). The Caraka Samhita gives the following definition of prabhava: 

“In cases, where inspite of similarity in rasa, virya, and vipaka, there is difference in action, this (difference) is said to be due to prabhava (specific potency).”7 

Vaghbata defines prabhava in the Astanga Hrdayam as:

“The special action (of a substances) seen, when the rasa and others (present in it) are of equal strength, that action is said to be arisen from prabhava. . .”8 

One such special action of guduchi is that of “vakshagni dipani”, literally “that which strengthens the flame of the heart”. “Vaksha” means “heart” and “dipani” refers to the ability of guduchi to increase the agni of the heart. When the flame of the heart is strong, one is able to endure emotional challenges without becoming emotionally imbalanced. Mishra goes on to state that by way of strengthening the heart, guduchi is able to function as a “medhya rasayana” (rejuvenative for the mind).4 

A comparative study was conducted to examine the effects of medhya rasayanas including guduchi alongside gotu kola, licorice, and shankapushpi. The study found that consumption of these herbs (alongside yogic practices such as meditation) increased the short-term memory capacity of young children. The study concluded that medhya rasayanas were actually more effective and efficient in improving memory than yogic practices.11 Guduchi also has “vyasthapana prabhava” (or the ability to retain youthfulness”.4 Another prabhava of guduchi is that of “vishaghna” which means “anti-toxic” and accounts for its potent detoxifying effects.25

In their treatise on Ayurvedic herbs, Dr. Vasant Lad and Dr. David Frawley note that the primary actions of guduchi are on the blood, fat, and reproductive tissues of the body (or the rakta, medas, and shukra dhatus).1 

IV. Ayurvedic Pharmacodynamics, Uses, and Formulations

The roots, stems, and leaves of the guduchi plant are all used medicinally in Ayurveda, although it is primarily the bitter starch of the plant (known as “Giloy Sattva”) that is prized.1 The leaves are described as being mucilaginous while consuming large doses of the root gives a strong emetic effect. The stem is regarded to have anti-purgative effects.3 One research study conducted an elemental analysis of the guduchi stem, concluding that guduchi stems are “a potential source of nutrition and minerals for man as well as animals”.9

In the Caraka Samhita, guduchi is listed as having the following actions:

  • vatahara (alleviates vata)
  • kaphahara (alleviates kapha)
  • deepana (promotes digestion by increasing agni)
  • raktapittahara (alleviates bleeding disorders)
  • vayaha sthapana (anti-aging)
  • stanyashodhana (detoxifies breast milk)
  • trushna nigrahana (alleviates thirst)
  • daha prashamana (alleviates burning)
  • jwaraghna (alleviates fever)
  • vivandhahara (alleviates constipation).7

In the Bhav Prakash, guduchi is listed as being useful for the following conditions: 

  • daha (burning) 
  • meha (urinary conditions) 
  • kasa (cough) 
  • pandutam (anemia) 
  • kamala (chronic jaundice)
  • kushta (skin diseases)
  • vatasrajwara (vata-type fever) 
  • krimi (parasites) 
  • vamimharet (vomiting due to toxicity) 
  • heart conditions that are difficult to treat (krichahridaroga).4,24

In Chapter Four, verse 40 of Sutrasthana, Caraka classifies guduchi “among astringents, vata-alleviators, appetisers, and pacifiers of kapha, rakta and constipation”. Caraka mentions guduchi in a list of other herbs saying, “these may be used for non-unctuous enema in udavarta [bloating] and constipation. With this very group of drugs may be prepared unctuous enema for alleviation of vata.” Caraka also lists guduchi as an ingredient in a paste prepared for treating skin disorders, saying, “These six formulations…impregnated with ox-bile, ground again and prepared with mustard oil and then used externally by physicians along with the powder…thus administered they destroy in no time obstinate skin disease, acute leucoderma, alopecia, kitibha (a skin disease), ringworm, fistula-in-ano, piles, scrofula and papular eruptions in human beings.” Guduchi is also featured in a formula for gout which states that “Ghee prepared with rasna, guduchi, madhuyasti, both (types of) bala, jivaka, rsabhaka along with milk and added with bee-wax is used as paste for alleviating discomfort in raktavata [gout].”7

In a discussion concerning the use of rasayana herbs, the Caraka Samhita describes a formula that includes guduchi, stating that “these rasayana drugs are life-promoting, disease-alleviating, promoters of strength, agni, complexion, voice and are intellect-promoting”. Guduchi is classified in the Caraka Samhita under the category of “Jeevaneeya Gana” which means “Enlivening and Anti-Aging Herbs”. In this context it is mentioned with a group of herbs for “stanyashodhana”, or the detoxification of breast milk. Guduchi is also mentioned in the treatment of fever, “Guduchi, amalaka and musta–these five (formulations for) decoctions ending in half verses alleviate five types of fever such as remittent, double quitoidian, quitidian, tertian and quartan”. Guduchi is listed in another formulation that is considered “efficacious in chronic fever”.  It is also classified by Caraka to be an anti-dyspic.7

Caraka lists guduchi as the main ingredient in a taila formulation known as “Amrta taila”. He describes it as, “. . .one of the best oils. It brings back to normalcy persons with diminished energy, agni and strength and confused mind and suffering from insanity, restlessness and epilepsy. It is an excellent alleviator of vatika disorders”.7  A study published in The Journal of Ethnopharmacology examined a 6th Century medical treatise written by Buddhist monks on birch paper known as the “Bower Manuscript”. In this manuscript, a recipe for Amrita Oil and an Amrita Ghee were given with guduchi as the main ingredient alongside other rasayana herbs. The study sought to identify the prized “soma” plant of the Rig Veda and concluded that the soma plant is likely a combination of guduchi with tryptamine extract.12 In another study, the Amrita Taila and Amrita Ghrita featuring guduchi were examined for their pharmacological effects. The authors of the study describe guduchi as a “drug that has properties like Rasayana (rejuvenating property), Krimighna (anthelmintics), and Kushtghna (skin disorders).” The study found that the taila in particular had more of an immunostimulating activity, while the ghrita “exhibited an anti-stress effect with an immunosupressing activity.”13

Guduchi is also used in the treatment of convalescence, hyperacidity, hepatitis, diabetes, tuberculosis, arthritis, gout, and hermorrhoids. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, guduchi is known as “Kuan Jin Teng” and is used primarily for treating swelling from arthritis or injury.1

Vaghbata lists guduchi in two herb categories in the Astanga Hrdayam: 

1. Patoladi gana:  a group of herbs that “…subjugate kapha and pitta and cure leprosy (and other skin diseases), fevers, poison, vomiting, anorexia and jaundice.”

2. Guduchyadi gana: a group of herbs that “mitigate pitta and kapha, cure fever, vomiting, burning sensation, thirst and improves digestion.”8

The Astanga Hrdayam gives two recipes featuring guduchi used in the treatment of vata-type fever.8 One such formula is Patolakaturohinyadi Kashayam, a traditional formula used in the treatment of liver disorders and skin diseases. Guduchi is one of six herbs in this formula that is used primarily to treat skin and liver disorders of Pitta-Kapha origin. It purifies the blood and liver, removes cellular toxicity, and rejuvenates the cellular system when it has been affected by disease.10

In Yoga and Ayurveda, Dr. David Frawley highlights the ability of guduchi to cool the body and mind, echoing sentiments similar to Vaidya Mishra in describing it as a “rejuvenative for Pitta”. According to Dr. Frawley, guduchi not only reduces fevers but can counter viral infections such as Eptstein-Barre virus and AIDS. As a rasayana, guduchi also improves energy levels especially in the context of chronic fatigue syndrome.14 

V. Modern Medical Research

Guduchi is not only well-documented in classical texts and modern Ayurvedic literature. Scientists and doctors are now able to evaluate confirm the insight of the ancient rishis in the context of research studies that examine the effects of the herb.

One study published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology concluded that guduchi had immunomodulatory effects, confirming the Ayurvedic view of guduchi as a rasayana and immune-booster.15 Another study compared the anti-stress effects of guduchi and gotu kola in comparison to diazepam. Ethanol extracts of guduchi and gotu kola showed “significant anti-stress activity”, especially in comparison to the pharmaceutical, diazepam.16 In a study published in Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, guduchi was found to have anti-tumor properties. According to the study, an alcohol extraction of guduchi was shown to activate tumor-associated macrophages (white blood cells that eat cancer cells).17

Ayurveda describes guduchi as being useful in conditions of hepatitis and jaundice due to its ability to detoxify the liver. In a clinical trial, liver toxicity was induced in rats, followed by the administration of an alcohol extract of guduchi. The extract protected the livers of the rats, showing that guduchi has clinically significant hepatoprotective properties.18

Guduchi was found to be useful in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, an allergic condition characterized by sneezing, mucus discharge from the nose, sinus congestion, and related symptoms. The study showed that guduchi gave significant relief to the allergic symptoms.19

A study published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology showed the efficacy of guduchi in treating diabetes mellitus by lowering blood glucose levels and brain lipids in diabetic rats, concluding that guduchi extract has hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects.20

Another study tested the rejuvenative potential of guduchi, examining the ability of guduchi (and ashwagandha) to reduce oxidative stress in human volunteers. The results of the study showed that both herbs are potent antioxidants that may also prevent premature aging.21

Modern research has found that guduchi also has gastroprotective properties. Epoxy clerodane diterpene, a compound in guduchi, was isolated and given to rats with gastric ulcer. The compound reduced the gastic ulcer “by reinforcement of defensive elements and diminishing the offensive elements.”22

Guduchi is also being studied for its positive effects on emotional and psychological health. In one study, rats were administered a “Rasayana Ghana tablet” comprised of guduchi, amalaki, and gokshura. The tablet was found to have anxiolytic and anti-depressive effects on the rats.23 

A comprehensive and summary study was conducted to examine and validate the many pharmacological effects of guduchi described in the Ayurvedic texts. The study examined and confirmed the following effects, actions, and uses of guduchi:

learning and memory enhancer (medhya rasayana)

  • anti-inflammatory
  • anti-arthritic
  • anti-osteoporitic
  • anti-allergic
  • antioxidant
  • antineoplastic 
  • radio-protective
  • anti-pyretic 
  • anti-infective
  • hepato-protective
  • immunomodulatory
  • diuretic
  • cardio-protective
  • anti-leprotic
  • anti-ulcer
  • osteo-protective

The conclusion of the study states that the “pharmacological actions attributed to Tinospora cordifolia in Ayurvedic texts have been validated by a remarkable body of modern evidence suggesting that this drug has immense potential in modern pharmacotherapeutics.”25

VI. Conclusion

Guduchi has been revered in nearly all of the ancient Ayurvedic texts and modern treatises: Caraka Samhita, Astanga Hrdayam, Astanga Samgraha, Sushruta Samhita, Bhav Prakash, and Indian Materia Medica to name a few. In modern medical research, there is an abundance of studies and scientific evaluation on the astoundingly diverse pharmacological effects of this sacred herb. Guduchi appears to be experiencing a modern renaissance, as Western medicine begins to recognize its vast potential in both preventive and clinical medicine. Truly, guduchi is the amrit of Ayurveda, the medicinal nectar that is deeply needed and most relevant in these modern times. 


1. Dr. David Frawley, Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs: An Ayurvedic Guide To Herbal Medicine (Twin Lakes, WI: Lotus Press, 2001), pp. 4-5, 242-243.

2. Giloy Herb: The Wonder Plant, Giloy: The origin and uses, 

3. K.M. Nadkarni, Indian Materia Medica (Bombay: Popular Prakashan, 1908), pp. 356-357.

4. SVAyurveda: From Sutra to Science, Vaidya Mishra, “Guduchi–Learn About The Most Divine Herb In Ayurveda”,

5. The Chopra Center, Deepak Chopra, “Guduchi”,

6. Dr. Marc Halpern, D.C., C.A.S., P.K.S., Principles of Ayurvedic Medicine: Textbook for the Ayurvedic Profession, Tenth Edition (Nevada City, CA: California College of Ayurveda, 2012), pp. 249-250.

7. Prof. Priyavrat Sharma (Editor-Translator), Caraka-Samhita: Agnivesa’s treatise refined and annotated by Caraka and redacted by Drbhabala (Varanasi: Chaukambha Orientalia, 2014), Vol. I. Ch. II [verses 11-14], Ch. III [verses 1-7, 22], Ch. IV [verses 18-19, 29, 41], Ch. XXV [verse 40], Ch. XXVI [verse 67], Vol. II, Ch. I [verses 30-31], Ch III [verses 200-203, 222-223], Ch XXVIII [verses 157-164] 

8. Vagbhata’s Astanga Hrdayam, translated by Prof. K. R.. Srikantha Murthy (Varanasi: Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy, 2014), Vol. 1, Ch. I [verses 48-51b], Ch. IX [verse 26], Ch. XXV {verses 15-16].

9. Mahima, Rahal A, Prakash A, Verma AK, Kumar V, Roy D., “Proximate and elemental analyses of Tinospora cordifolia stem,” Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 17 (May 2014): 744-7.

10. All About Ayurveda, Patolakaturohinyadi Kashayam – An effective medicine in Skin and Liver diseases, Dr. Raghuram Y.S.,

11. Sarokte, Shankar Atul and Rao, Mangaloagowri V., “Effects of Medhya Rasayana and Yogic practices in improvement of short-term memory among school-going children,” AYU An International Quarterly Journal of Research in Ayurveda, 34 (Oct-Dec 2013): 383-389.

12. Leonti M, Casu L., “Soma, food of the immortals according to the Bower Manuscript (Kashmir, 6th century A.D.),” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 155 (August 2014): 373-86.

13. Vaghamshi R., Jaiswal M., Patgiri B.J., Prajapati P.K., Ravishankar B., Shukla V.J., “A comparative pharmacological evaluation of Taila (oil) and Ghrita (ghee) prepared with Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia),” AYU An International Quarterly Journal of Research in Ayurveda, 31 (October 2010): 504-8.

14. Dr. David Frawley, Yoga and Ayurveda: Self-Healing and Self-Realization, (Twin Lakes, WI: Lotus Press, 1999), pp. 196-197).

15. Kapil, A., Sharma, S., “Immunopotentiating compounds from Tinospora cordifolia,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 58 (October 1997): 89-95.

16. Sarma, D.N.K., Khosa, R.L., Chansauria, J.P.N., Sahai, M., “Antistress Activity of Tinospora cordifolia and Centella asiatica Extracts,” Phytotherapy Research, 10 (December 1996): 181-183.

17. Singh, Nisha; Singh, Mahendra Sukh; Srivastava, Pratima, “Immunomodulatory and Antitumor Actions of Medicinal Plant Tinospora cordifolia Are Mediated Through Activation of Tumor‐Associated Macrophages,”,Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, 26 (February 2004): 145-62. 

18. Bishayi B., Roychowdhury S., Ghosh S., Sengupta M., “Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of Tinospora cordifolia in CCl4 intoxicated mature albino rats,” The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 27 (August 2002): 139-46. 

19. Badar V.A., Thawani V.R., Wakode P.T., Shrivastava M.P., Gharpure K.J., Hingorani L.L., Khiyani R.M., “Efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia in allergic rhinitis,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 96 (January 2005): 445-9.

20. Stanely P., Prince M., Menon V.P., “Hypoglycaemic and other related actions of Tinospora cordifolia roots in alloxan-induced diabetic rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 70 (April 2000): 9-15. 

21. Kuchewar V.V., Borkar M.A., Nisargandha M.A., “Evaluation of antioxidant potential of Rasayana drugs in healthy human volunteers,” AYU An International Quarterly Journal of Research in Ayurveda, 35 (January 2014): 46-9.

22. Antonisamy P., Dhanasekaran M., Ignacimuthu S., Duraipandiyan V., Balthazar J.D., Agastian P., Kim J.H., “Gastroprotective effect of epoxy clerodane diterpene isolated from Tinospora cordifolia Miers (Guduchi) on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats,” Phytomedicine, 21 (June 2014): 966-9.

23. Deole Y.S., Chavan S.S., Ashok B.K., Ravishankar B., Thakar A.B., Chandola H.M., “Evaluation of anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity of Rasayana Ghana Tablet (A compound Ayurvedic formulation) in albino mice,” AYU An International Quarterly Journal of Research in Ayurveda, 32 (July 2011): 375-9.

24. Chunekar K.C., Pandey G.S., Bhavprakash Nighantu,  (Varanasi: Chaukhambha Bharati Academy, 2006), Ch. 8 [verse 10].

25. Upadhyay, Avnish K., Kumar, Kaushal, Mishra, Hari S., “Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. f. and Thoms. (Guduchi) – validation of the Ayurvedic pharmacology through experimental and clinical studies,” International Journal of Ayurveda Research, 1 (April-June 2010): 112-121.